In the era of big data, enterprises are facing the challenge of storing and processing massive amounts of data. Traditional monolithic database systems can no longer meet the requirements of high concurrency, high availability, and massive data processing. Therefore, distributed database clusters have come into being, and MyCat, as an excellent open-source distributed database middleware, has become the preferred solution for many enterprises to build MySQL distributed clusters.

MyCat Sharding Thought Analysis Learning Notes

MyCat is an open-source database middleware implemented in Java, which follows the MySQL protocol and appears as a MySQL server to the outside world. The core value of MyCat lies in its ability to implement database sharding, that is, horizontally splitting a single large table into multiple small tables, which are distributed and stored on different database nodes, thus improving the system’s concurrent processing capability and data read/write efficiency.

Core Components of MyCat

  • Schema: A logical database, corresponding to a Database in MySQL, can contain multiple Tables.
  • Table: A logical table, i.e., a table in the physical database. In MyCat, a table needs to be bound to a logical data node, DataNode.
  • DataNode: A logical data node, also known as a shard node, points to the physical node that stores actual data, associated through DataSource.
  • DataSource: The access address of the physical database, used to connect to the specific data storage node.
  • Sharding Rule: Determines how data is distributed across different shards. Choosing the right sharding rule is crucial for the even distribution of data and query performance.

Steps to Build a MySQL Distributed Cluster with MyCat

MySQL Node Installation and Configuration:

Install MySQL 8.0.11 nodes, create a unified database instance, such as szabm. Note that you should set the configuration parameter lower_case_table_names=1 to avoid case sensitivity issues.

Java Environment Installation:

Since MyCat is developed based on Java, you must first install the Java environment on the server. It is recommended to use Oracle JDK 8 or a higher version.

MySQL Client Installation:

To manage the backend databases, you need to install the MySQL client. You can download the corresponding version of the binary package from the MySQL official website, unzip it, and set the environment variables for ease of use.

MyCat Software Installation:

Download the MyCat software package from the MyCat official website, unzip it, set the MYCAT_HOME environment variable, and add its bin directory to the PATH.

Starting MyCat Service:

Start the MyCat service by executing the MyCat start command, and check the logs to ensure the service starts correctly.

Testing the MySQL Distributed Cluster Architecture

After the setup is complete, thorough testing should be conducted to ensure the stability and performance of the cluster. During testing, pay attention to the evenness of data sharding, read-write separation strategy, cluster fault tolerance, and scalability.

Performance Optimization and Monitoring

After setting up a distributed cluster, performance optimization and monitoring are indispensable. Improve cluster performance through refining sharding rules, optimizing query statements, using caches and read-write separation, etc. At the same time, use monitoring tools such as Zabbix, Prometheus, etc., to monitor the cluster status and identify and solve problems in a timely manner.


The MySQL distributed cluster built based on MyCat provides enterprises with a reliable, efficient, and scalable database solution. With proper configuration and maintenance, it can greatly enhance the database’s processing capabilities to meet the increasingly growing demands of modern big data and high concurrency needs. Traditional monolithic databases face performance bottlenecks and availability challenges. To overcome these limitations, more and more enterprises are turning to distributed database solutions, among which the MyCat-based MySQL distributed cluster is favored for its outstanding performance and flexibility.