As container technology matures, technicians are often faced with a choice when deploying containers: should they run directly on bare metal, or within a virtual machine? This article will delve into the advantages and disadvantages of both deployment methods and, through practical code demonstrations, help you make an informed decision.

Bare Metal Container Deployment

Bare Metal refers to running containers directly on physical hardware without any additional virtualization layer. The main advantage of this approach is the extreme optimization of performance, as there is no overhead from virtualization.


  1. High Efficiency: Direct interaction with hardware reduces latency and resource overhead caused by virtualization.
  2. Maximized Resource Utilization: All hardware resources can be directly used by containers without waste.
  3. Environmental Consistency: The runtime environment is much closer to the production environment, helping to minimize issues caused by environmental differences.


  1. Security: Bare metal deployment may expose more security risks since containers share the same operating system kernel.
  2. Poor Portability: Being tied to specific hardware, migration may face hardware compatibility issues.
  3. Inferior Isolation: Compared to virtual machines, the isolation between containers is not as thorough, potentially affecting each other.

Virtual Machine Container Deployment

Virtual Machines (VMs) deploy containers within a virtualized environment. VMs provide a complete operating system environment, essentially emulating “hardware” at a software level.


  1. Good Isolation: Each virtual machine operates in an independent environment, ensuring containers do not affect one another.
  2. Higher Security: Virtual machines offer stricter security boundaries.
  3. Strong Compatibility: Virtual machines can run on various hardware platforms and are easily migrated.


  1. Performance Overhead: The virtualization layer consumes additional resources, leading to reduced performance.
  2. Lower Resource Utilization Efficiency: Virtual machines need to emulate an entire hardware environment, occupying more memory and processor resources.
  3. Increased Management Complexity: Maintaining virtual machine environments is more complex than managing bare metal environments.

Practical Demonstrations

Next, we will show you how to deploy containers on both bare metal and virtual machines through practical code demonstrations.

Deploying Containers on Bare Metal

Assuming you have Docker installed, the command to deploy a container instance is as follows:

docker run -d --name geek-container nginx

This command will download the nginx image and run a container named geek-container in the background.

Deploying Containers on Virtual Machines

First, you need to install Docker on the virtual machine. The following example uses Vagrant to create a virtual machine and install Docker:

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| = "ubuntu/bionic64" "private_network", type: "dhcp"
  config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
    apt-get update
    apt-get install -y

Then, just like running containers on bare metal, you can use Docker commands to deploy containers within the virtual machine.


Bare metal and virtual machines each have their own advantages and disadvantages when it comes to container deployment. Bare metal is suitable for scenarios with high-performance requirements, while virtual machine deployment offers significant benefits in terms of security and isolation. Technicians should make decisions based on actual needs and resource situations.

In the end, regardless of the choice made, it’s important to understand the trade-offs of each option and ensure that your containerization strategy aligns with your business goals and operational model. This article aims to help you better understand the details of container deployment and successfully implement your containerization journey.